Saturday, November 30, 2019

Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Example Essay Example

Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Example Paper Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Introduction 1. Economies of scale are characterized by decreases in the average cost of production with increases in the levels of production. These are especially enjoyed by firms that are expanding their operations in terms of managerial activities, purchases, financial borrowing and marketing operations (Economies 2007). Small firms usually can play a crucial role in equitable development and economic growth, especially in the developing countries, and mainly through poverty reduction, employment creation, and broad distribution of opportunities and wealth (Elliethy, A 1992). Just the same these firms’ great potential is not usually realized because of the problems of isolation and size. In most cases, small firms do not achieve economies of scale in purchasing the inputs, and are therefore unable to avail the market advantages in terms of regular supply, high levels of production and those of homogeneous products. Isolation is a big limit for these firms since it affects factors such as training, logistics, market intelligence, as well as innovations. Small firms normally maintain a small profit margin since they cannot afford to invent new processes and products most of the time as the larger firms with their special Research Development units. Rather, small firms may only gain a competitive position in the markets through networking. Evidence from both developed in addition to developing countries shows that networking is only possible if small firms have common interests such as similar products and challenges (Landstrà ¶m, H 2005). There are two kinds of economies of scale: internal economies of scale and external economies of scale. Internal economies of scale can be enjoyed when the output of a small firm increases, perhaps due to governmental subsidies that lower the unit cost of production. Because fixed costs are shared by the number of units produced by a firm, a small firm that increases its production capacity will enjoy internal economies of scale . Furthermore, a small firm that increases its production capacity may enjoy discounts from its suppliers, referred to as bulk-buying or purchasing economies. This firm may also take loans at lower interest rates from the banks – referred to as financial economies. Additionally, a small firm that increases its production capacity may enjoy managerial economies as it hires more people and avails the advantages of division of labor. Another advantage of increasing production capacity – referred to as indivisibility – may be availed when a small firm changes its machinery and/or processes to replace the older ones and thereby accommodate the larger production capacity (Rodda, C 2004). Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Body Paragraphs While larger firms are understood to be more economical than smaller firms, a small firm may enjoy external economies of scale when the output of the industry is increased. As the production capacity of the industry increases, the number of trained workers also increases. In point of fact, the government may provide special training to the labor force in this situation. A trained labor force is definitely more economical than untrained workers. Moreover, a small firm may enjoy external economies of scale when the production capacity of the industry increases and there emerge other businesses to support the growing industry. Such firms may have their own competitors, and they too may enjoy economies of scale. Most importantly, the industries that these supporting businesses form tend to reduce the unit cost of production for the small firm. Lastly, small firms may enjoy external economies of scale when they cooperate with each other, for instance, to publish shared advertising materia l (Rodda, C). 2. Market fragmentation entails a division of the market in more ways than one. It commonly occurs that a given product may have the same quality and brand name but different prices in separate locations; this may arise due to the variance in the transportation costs and storage costs among other variable costs. A product may similarly have the same brand name but varied qualities of it may be produced, thereby leading to a difference in prices. All of these factors could lead to the market fragmentation. This economic principle is closely related to market differentiation. When the markets are fragmented, each supplier of a given product may enjoy limited economies of scale because the suppliers cannot collectively possess a common bargaining force. This is because each of them is independent, but usually very keen to watch the actions of the other players in the market. However, the uncertainties existing in this type of market do not increase external economies of s cale. The desire to produce a strong product typically involves making a product different from that of the fellow competitors, and this leads to fragmentation of the markets to boot. Nevertheless, strong product differentiation is a key factor towards achieving a competitive advantage. Product differentiation may include offering a product similar to that of the competitors, but of better packaging or quality. This also enables the market to be fragmented, as the products in the market are similar to each other but differentiated or diverse. Hence, consumers at different market niches are charged different prices. Creative content and image is another key factor that may lead to market differentiation. Creative content is related to innovation as it enables the seller to improve his products to allow them to attain a bigger market share (Sutcliff, M, Sloman, J 2004). 3. It is of vital importance to SME’s to evaluate the external environmental factors in the process of strat egic analysis (Dubinas, V, Stonkuviene, R 2005). Systematic competitiveness involves viewing industrial competitiveness as an interaction of both macro and micro factors. In systematic competitiveness, there are the meta and meso factors to be contemplated. These factors may have a huge impact on the daily operation of the SME. As a matter of fact, such factors also affect other businesses, and may include political forces, economic environment, and the legal environment. The internal factors are also included for consideration in the systematic competitiveness model. These may include the quality, efficiency and flexibility among other things (Sutcliff, M, Sloman, J). In short, a small or medium-sized enterprise must be aware of the competitive advantages of firms that produce goods that are similar to its own. 4. Innovation is one of the tools used against the negative impacts of market fragmentation in the small firms; this is because innovation enables them to come up with bet ter products that are equally competitive at all level in the market. Innovation entails coming up with better products or with more efficient technology that could enable small firms to produce more efficiently. Strong cost control is another tool against the negative effects of market fragmentation; this is because once the costs are carefully monitored, all the decisions made would be cost effective and production would always be efficient. Cost benefit analysis could be of paramount importance to these firms, as it allows them to easily achieve price competitiveness. Specialization similarly enables these firms to produce better products in a more efficient way. Moreover, specialization allows small firms to do away with the products that are inefficient. This enables them to continue on a certain line of production and improve as they become more experienced with time (Sutcliff, M, Sloman, J). 5. Heterogeneous oligopolies are market forms dominated by a small number of firms t hat know the likely activity of one another and usually deal with various types of products. Heterogeneous oligopolists may produce different products which are similar in function but diverse in terms of quality. Furthermore, a heterogeneous oligopoly may consist of both larger and smaller firms. Interactivity is the main characteristic of the oligopolistic markets since there are a few sellers. The decision likely to be made by one firm is influenced by the likely decisions of other firms. Heterogeneous oligopolists may also influence the prices of the products of their competitors. Strategic planning is crucial in heterogeneous oligopolies due to the high risk of collusion among the participants in the industry. 6. There were 4,423, 500 firms in the United Kingdom in the year 2005. Forty one percent of the working labor force was employed in micro firms. In the small firms, 46.8 percent of the working labor force was employed. In the small and medium-sized enterprises, 58.7 perce nt of the working labor force was employed (Small Business Analytical 2007). 7. The following is a line graph showing the share of SME’s in total employment from 1994-2005: The graph shows a tremendous increase in the employment of the small and medium-sized enterprises between 1994 and 2005. This may have been due to an increase in the number of small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom, especially between 1999 and 2000. The increase may have been due to a more conducive environment created by the UK government especially for SME’s, with the introduction of new regulations that help SME’s to lower their costs of production. Such support from the government may specifically have included the offering of expert advice, training of the labour force, financial support or subsidies, and regulation of the markets such that small and medium-sized enterprises could easily enter and leave the markets at their own will, therefore resulting in an increase in SME’s, which in turn lead to an increase in the total employment of UK. It is also possible that the small and medium-sized enterprises in the United Kingdom expanded their operations substantially between 1999 and 2000, and employed more people to accommodate the expanded scales of production because of subsidies introduced by the government especially for SME’s. Of course, governmental support could have arrived for SME’s in other forms as well, e.g. regulations that made it easy for them to enter the industry and exist. 8. Business, enterprise regulatory reform is one of the major policies aimed at offering the best support to the SME’s in the United Kingdom. This offers all the necessary support to SME’s at the local, national and regional level; more so, it ensures that the government would continuously support the SME’s with expertise. A good business environment is provided so that all entrepreneurs can utilize their opportunities. This ensures that the SME’s will grow with the full support of the regulatory authorities (Small Business 2007). 9. The SME’s in Venezuela are likely to be revived. The economic indicators of the country generally show a positive forward move. The government has introduced measures to revive the SME’s through the offering of necessary information as well as better technology to enhance their production capacities. Unfortunately, however, political and social tensions in the country are hindering the process. These crises have also lead to increased inflation in the country, in addition to rising unemployment rates and decrease in the Gross Domestic Product (Mulhern, A, Stewart, C 1999; Venezuela 2007). 10. Explanatory variables are also called independent variables or controlled variables. These variables manipulate the SME situation in Venezuela. From 1961 to 1990, the following were the explanatory variables that had an influence on small and medium-sized en terprises in the country: the manufacturing share and the error correlation, barriers to entry, modernization of enterprises, the factor mix, GDP and the exogenous proxy variables (Mulhern, A, Stewart, C). We will write a custom essay sample on Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Small and Medium-Sized Firms Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Sleazy and slazy

Sleazy and slazy Sleazy and slazy Sleazy and slazy By Maeve Maddox Sleezy is given in both the OED and Merriam-Webster as an alternate spelling of sleazy, but the only standard pronunciation of sleazy is /slÄ“zÄ“/, with a long e. NOTE: the pronunciation [slÄ zÄ“] can be found in dialect. It can also be documented in the works of American writers of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Presently, however, the long e pronunciation is the standard on both sides of the Atlantic. Since Id never heard sleazy pronounced slazy, I snapped to attention when I heard a character on a television program say that something done by another character was slazy. The other character repeated the word as slazy. Unfortunately, I have no way to double check, but it seemed to me that the context called for sleazy in its sense of filthy, sordid, depraved. But I would have assumed that because the program was Rules of Engagement and the speakers were the extremely sleazy characters Jeff and Russell. The word sleazy entered the language in the 1640s as a textile term with the meaning hairy, fuzzy. In the 1660s it took on the meaning flimsy, unsubstantial. The word was applied to fabrics that were lacking in body, what wed call flimsy. From there it was used to describe anything lacking in substance and eventually took on the meanings dilapidated, filthy, slatternly, squalid; sordid, depraved, disreputable, worthless. The back formation sleaze meaning person of low moral standards is a recent coinage. The earliest example given in the OED is dated 1976. Sleazebag is attested in 1981. Here are some examples of current usage: I used to have a purple paisley polyester pull-over†¦ that made me feel 70s sleazy†¦ †¦this place is in NO WAY a restaurantall you have to do is look at the fliers he puts up and you would know its a sleazy nightclub!! Sleazy Antics of ESPN Stars How do I stop a sleazy journalist from using my name? An internet search brought up numerous examples of the word slazy. A few are misspellings of sleazy, but most reflect a new coinage based on the word lazy. Here are two examples in which slazy is a misspelling for sleazy: the places where this happens are slazy, unattractive developments which encourage low-quality behaviour. these companies morph from slazy little back alley rooms to full service brightly lit and beautifully appointed offices.. Although the word slazy as a synonym for lazy has not yet made it into the major dictionaries, it is mentioned in the Urban Dictionary. One definition describes it as a combination of sleepy and lazy; another as a slack+lazy. Im not sure what its supposed to mean as the blog title of a get-rich-quick site called Slazy Cash. Perhaps just lazy. I rather like the definition given by blogger Katie Richardson whose husband created slazy as a combination of the intensifier so and lazy to give the meaning extremely lazy. Her husband used it to describe the behavior of a man who used his GPS to find a house whose location was already familiar to him. She applies it to behavior motivated by brainless over-reliance on technology. Used as a spelling or pronunciation for sleazy, slazy is a misspelling and a mispronunciation. Used as a cutesy word for the standard word lazy, slazy has little to recommend it. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Examples of Passive Voice (And How To Fix Them)5 Lessons for Mixing Past and Present TenseDozen: Singular or Plural?

Friday, November 22, 2019

10 Calcium Element Facts You Should Know

10 Calcium Element Facts You Should Know Calcium is one of the elements you need in order to live, so its worth knowing a little bit about it. Here are some quick facts about the element calcium. Fast Facts: Calcium Element Name: CalciumElement Symbol: CaAtomic Number: 20Standard Atomic Weight: 40.078Discovered By: Sir Humphry DavyClassification: Alkaline Earth MetalState of Matter: Solid Metal Calcium is element atomic number 20 on the periodic table, which means each atom of calcium has 20 protons. It has the periodic table symbol Ca and an atomic weight of 40.078. Calcium isnt found free in nature, but it can be purified into a soft silvery-white alkaline earth metal. Because the alkaline earth metals are reactive, pure calcium typically appears dull white or gray from the oxidation layer that quickly forms on the metal when its exposed to air or water.  The pure metal can be cut using a steel knife.Calcium is the 5th most abundant element in the Earths crust, present at a level of about 3% in the oceans and soil. The only metals more abundant in the crust are iron and aluminum. Calcium is also abundant on the Moon. It is present at about 70 parts per million by weight in the solar system.  Natural calcium is a mixture of six isotopes, with the most abundant (97%) being calcium-40.The element is essential for animal and plant nutrition. Calcium participates in many b iochemical reactions, including building skeletal systems, cell signaling, and moderating muscle action.  It is the most abundant metal in the human body, found mainly in bones and teeth. If you could extract all of the calcium from the average adult person, youd have about 2 pounds (1 kilogram) of the metal.  Calcium in the form of calcium carbonate is used by snails and shellfish to construct shells. Dairy products and grains are the primary sources of dietary calcium, accounting or about three-quarters of dietary intake. Other sources of calcium include protein-rich foods, vegetables, and fruits.Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption by the human body. Vitamin D is converted to a hormone which causes intestinal proteins responsible for calcium absorption to be produced.Calcium supplementation is controversial. While calcium and its compounds are not considered to be toxic, ingesting too many calcium carbonate dietary supplements or antacids can cause milk-alkali syndrome, which is associated with hypercalcemia sometimes leading to fatal renal failure. Excessive consumption would be on the order of 10 g calcium carbonate/day, though symptoms have been reported upon ingesting as little as 2.5 g calcium carbonate daily.  Excessive calcium consumption has been linked to kidney stone formation and artery calcification.Calcium is used for making cement, making cheese, removin g nonmetallic impurities from alloys, and as a reduction agent in the preparation of other metals.  The Romans used to heat limestone, which is calcium carbonate, to make calcium oxide. The calcium oxide was mixed with water to make cement, which was mixed with stones to build aqueducts, amphitheaters, and other structures that survive to the present day. Pure calcium metal reacts vigorously and sometimes violently with water and acids.  The reaction is exothermic. Touching calcium metal can cause irritation or even chemical burns. Swallowing calcium metal can be fatal.The element name calcium comes from the Latin word calcis or calx  meaning lime.  In addition to occurrence in lime (calcium carbonate), calcium is found in the minerals gypsum (calcium sulfate) and fluorite (calcium fluoride).Calcium has been known since the 1st century, when the ancient Romans were known to make lime from calcium oxide.  Natural calcium compounds are readily available in the form of calcium carbonate deposits, limestone, chalk, marble, dolomite, gypsum, fluorite, and apatite.Though calcium has been known for thousands of years, it was not purified as an element until 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy (England). Thus, Davy is considered to be the discoverer of calcium. Sources Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 112.Parish, R. V. (1977).  The Metallic Elements. London: Longman. p.  34.Weast, Robert (1984).  CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp.  E110.​

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Comparison contrast essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Comparison contrast - Essay Example The reason for being athletes Athletic can broadly cover all the physical activities that individuals involveinactivities that help boost their physique. People have different motives for participating in sporting events. Allender advocates that frequency of a person in events associated with bodybuildingdetermines the potential to win. An individual requires much physical energy to enhance the capability to perform better. Despite the positive impacts on an individual’s life resulting from involvement in sports, there are differing elements constituting to why individuals continue participating in athletes. Some do it for pleasure while others have hopes of growing into world champions. Contrast between Andy and Darwin a) Strength The strength of an individual player is of prime concern for the ability to remain in the field. Athletes have differing potential due to their frequent partaking in sports. Andy is a tennis player while Darwin is a Cub’s baseball player. Des pite the fact that all are ball games, Mueller states thatessential strength to involve oneself in the game differs from person to person. Andy usesless strength thanDarwin doesdue to the movement one makes when in the field.Opinionatedly, all athletes need enough energy for undertaking their positions while in the field. b) Salary Salary is the primary motive for people’s engagement in sporting activities. Through competition, one once declared the champion obtains several medals for the team. The salary attached to various players is different in regard to the activities they carry out. For instance, the salary of Andy is different from Darwin’s salary. The reason for the difference is the incapacitation of the team’s treasury. Salary difference may also be due to one’s performance. Coaches are very crucial people in the team, as they are the regulators of activities performed. Coaches are capable of determining who is to do what coaches should ensure t hat all players have equal pay despite what the individual does for the team. Robert, Weinberg, and Daniel illustrate that a better salary system motivates individuals into participating in athletics. c) Human health Physical activities are significant for the health of certain individuals. For one, an individual not fond of sports may end up acquiring some illnesses, some of which are avoidable through chipping in in physical activities. Such diseases as obesity affect the health of an individual and leads to incurring costs for proper medication (Mueller). Andy due to lack of involvement in much movement in the field may develop chronic diseases than Darwin who has to move to the ball. It is worth necessitating individuals have the motive to participate in sports to impede suffering from diseases. Lessons learnt from distinguishing the athletes Through the comparison, it is vital to note that individuals gain important requisites for their bodies. First, it is true that individual s get to know the importance of athletics in their bodies. Allender indicates that athletics help individuals in their health, as it is through exposure to physical activities that one is in a way able to reverse contraction of diseases (specifically, obesity). Secondly, continued involvement in athletic actions keeps the body fit for other activities. One is able to move from a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

MRES7004 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

MRES7004 - Essay Example The application of the sequence produces a FID which is read to get the gradient required. Multiple frequencies are produced as the read gradient is applied. The variation of frequencies is linearly connected. The total change of frequency experienced depends on the position within the gradient. After the FID is acquired, it is treated with a Fourier transform. This produces a spectrum that displays peaks corresponding to different frequencies. The sum total of all signal intensity values at one single place of observation become individual peaks. A one dimensional quantity is produced by the application of the read gradient as it is independent of time. (Weishaupt et al., 2006) Phase Direction Encoding A phase gradient is applied after applying a read gradient and slice selection. This is otherwise known as phase encoding and tends to increase the nuclei’s frequency such that it precesses at different angles that all match up with the Larmor frequency. The increase of frequen cy due to the application of a phase gradient directly impacts the total phase change displayed by nuclei. However there is a need to discern different nuclei which can be done by the application of Fourier transforms. (Westbrook et al., 2005) Question Two Using the Fourier transforms helps to convert the available data from the time domain to the frequency domain. This can then be utilised to form two dimensional or three dimensional images based on available data. Data is spatially encoded before becoming a part of the k space and so its position within the k space can be determined accordingly. Application of the first Fourier transforms aids in interpreting the data values that were encoded in the read direction. This is useful in identifying the frequency (alternatively signal intensity) within the plane selected for the application of the read gradient. This makes it simple to differentiate the positions within the k space’s horizontal trajectory. The data obtained in t his way has its units changed from m-1 to m. Consequently only a one dimensional image is formed. (Woodward, 2001) Application of the second Fourier transform helps to differentiate various frequencies that were encoded along the phase direction after the application of a phase gradient. This transform separates all the values and lists them accordingly. The vertical k space trajectories are dealt with this transformation. The units again change from m-1 to m and the resulting image becomes two dimensional. (IMAIOS, 2009) The total k space contains data encoded from two directions that are the read and the phase directions. The read direction’s data is displayed as horizontal trajectories in the k space while the phase direction’s data is displayed as vertical trajectories in the k space. Fourier transforms aid in creating a complete two dimensional image of the concerned nuclear spin densities in relation to the slice positions. (Hashemi et al., 2004) Question Three V arious experimental factors affect transverse spin coherence as well as the k space. These factors and their effects are listed below. Radio Frequency Pulse: A radio frequency pulse at 90o is utilised along with the chief magnetic field to produce magnetism such that the Z direction vector reorients itself into the X plane the Y plane. The magnetism produced is subsequently de-phased both in the X plane and the Y plane. This requires one more re-phasing at 180o. Read Gradient: Read

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Why many High School Graduates Are not Ready for College Essay Example for Free

Why many High School Graduates Are not Ready for College Essay The report underscores the importance of the skills that are most essential and associated with career and college readiness, [Paul Weeks] says. Since many secondary school teachers arent familiar with the skills that have been identified as the most essential to succeed in college, high school educators cover a breadth of skills. Postsecondary instructors would rather see more depth, not a broad range that are only an inch deep, asserts Weeks. For example, two students can pass algebra but have vastly different experiences and their knowledge can vary greatly. Colleges review class titles but rarely evaluate the essential skills mastered in the class. Now we know what skills lead to college and career readiness, suggests Weeks. And the more high school teachers are aware of those skills and can teach them, the better their graduates will perform in postsecondary education. Boone County schools also are collaborating with Northern Kentucky University to develop basic math programs. We want to make sure that every student is at that level of mastery. It drives everything we do, [Karen Cheser] says. To prepare students to be college ready, it requires conversations, transparency, and a willingness to put out data. It takes community-will and providing resources, she remarks.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Biofuel is An Alternative Energy Source Essay -- Power Energy Bio Fuel

Biofuel: An Alternative Energy Source Abstract As the world’s source of fossil fuels diminishes, another source of energy must replace fossil fuels. This paper evaluates biofuel, one alternative form of energy by showing what biofuel is, how it works, its historical use, and benefits and drawbacks it pertains. I hypothesized that biofuel would be an effective alternative energy. My conclusion does not support my claim, but in terms of worldwide usage. Introduction: With the world’s source of fossil fuels depleting, we need to find an alternative energy source. Biofuel is one considerable option. Although biofuel has not been used widespread, it has been used quite extensively in several countries. Such countries include Sri Lanka, China, India, and countries/regions in Africa that have large amounts of wood. Biofuel has appeared to be fairly effective in developing areas, and other countries have started using it. Background Biofuel is energy that is harvested from biomass through incineration, or combustion of the material. Such biomass materials may include wood, paper, charcoal, crop residue, and agricultural waste. Biofuel is renewable, because such biomass materials can be produced to create biofuel. Many rural areas use biofuels as their major energy source, because biomass tends to be abundant in such areas. Sub-saharan areas depend a lot upon wood. The combustion of biomass releases sources of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, Biofuel 3 and hydrocarbons. There are many types of biofuel; some common ones include methanol and ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas. The combustion of manure produces one type of biofuel known as biogas, which composes of 65% methane. Biogas can be harvested from manure through a process... ...gy/1183636805.22/?searchterm=biofuel 3. (2003). A History of Biodiesel/Biofuels. Retrieved July 28, 2007, from Yokako Biofuels Web site: http://www.ybiofuels.org/bio_fuels/history_biofuels.html 4. Giampietro, M., Ulgiati, S., & Pimentel, D. Feasability of Large-Scale Biofuel Production. JStor, Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.jstor.org/view/00063568/ap040415/ 04a00080/13?citationAction=save&charset=u&frame=noframe 5. West, Larry The Pros and Cons of Biofuel. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from About.com: Environmental Issues Web site: http://environment.about.com/od/fossilfuels/a/biofuels.htm 6. Yevich, R., & Logan, J.A. (June 30, 2002). An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world . Global Biogeochemical Cycles i>, Retrieved July 19, 2007, from http://www.whrc.org/ policy/COP/India/Yevich%20and%20Logan.%202003.pdf. Biofuel is An Alternative Energy Source Essay -- Power Energy Bio Fuel Biofuel: An Alternative Energy Source Abstract As the world’s source of fossil fuels diminishes, another source of energy must replace fossil fuels. This paper evaluates biofuel, one alternative form of energy by showing what biofuel is, how it works, its historical use, and benefits and drawbacks it pertains. I hypothesized that biofuel would be an effective alternative energy. My conclusion does not support my claim, but in terms of worldwide usage. Introduction: With the world’s source of fossil fuels depleting, we need to find an alternative energy source. Biofuel is one considerable option. Although biofuel has not been used widespread, it has been used quite extensively in several countries. Such countries include Sri Lanka, China, India, and countries/regions in Africa that have large amounts of wood. Biofuel has appeared to be fairly effective in developing areas, and other countries have started using it. Background Biofuel is energy that is harvested from biomass through incineration, or combustion of the material. Such biomass materials may include wood, paper, charcoal, crop residue, and agricultural waste. Biofuel is renewable, because such biomass materials can be produced to create biofuel. Many rural areas use biofuels as their major energy source, because biomass tends to be abundant in such areas. Sub-saharan areas depend a lot upon wood. The combustion of biomass releases sources of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, Biofuel 3 and hydrocarbons. There are many types of biofuel; some common ones include methanol and ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas. The combustion of manure produces one type of biofuel known as biogas, which composes of 65% methane. Biogas can be harvested from manure through a process... ...gy/1183636805.22/?searchterm=biofuel 3. (2003). A History of Biodiesel/Biofuels. Retrieved July 28, 2007, from Yokako Biofuels Web site: http://www.ybiofuels.org/bio_fuels/history_biofuels.html 4. Giampietro, M., Ulgiati, S., & Pimentel, D. Feasability of Large-Scale Biofuel Production. JStor, Retrieved July 25, 2007, from http://www.jstor.org/view/00063568/ap040415/ 04a00080/13?citationAction=save&charset=u&frame=noframe 5. West, Larry The Pros and Cons of Biofuel. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from About.com: Environmental Issues Web site: http://environment.about.com/od/fossilfuels/a/biofuels.htm 6. Yevich, R., & Logan, J.A. (June 30, 2002). An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world . Global Biogeochemical Cycles i>, Retrieved July 19, 2007, from http://www.whrc.org/ policy/COP/India/Yevich%20and%20Logan.%202003.pdf.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Beyond Gdp Paper

Special attention is devoted to recent developments in the analysis of sustainability, in the study of happiness, in the theory of social choice and fair allocation, and in the capability approach. It is suggested in the conclusion that, although convergence toward a consensual approach is not impossible, for the moment not one but three alternatives to GDP are worth developing. ( JEL I31, E23, E01) 1. Introduction GDP is recurrently criticized for being a poor indicator of social welfare and, therefore, leading governments astray in their assessment of economic policies. As is well known, GDP statistics measure current economic aactivity but ignore wealth variation, international income flows, household production of services, destruction of the natural environment, and many determinants of well-being such as the quality of social relations, economic security and personal safety, health, and longevity.Even worse, GDP increases when convivial reciprocity is replaced by anonymous mark et relations and when rising crime, pollution, catastrophes, or health hazards trigger * Fleurbaey: CNRS, University Paris Descartes, CORE (Universite de Louvain) and IDEP. Comments, suggestions and advice by S. Alkire, G. Asheim, A. Atkinson, A. Deaton, E. Diewert, R. Guesnerie, D. Kahneman, A. Krueger, I. Robeyns, P. Schreyer, three referees and Roger Gordon (the Editor) are gratefully acknowledged. defensive or repair expenditures.Not surprisingly, the construction of better indicators of social welfare is also, recurrently, a hot issue in public debate and a concern for politicians and governments. The last two decades have witnessed an explosion in the number of alternative indicators and a surge of initiatives from important institutions such as the OECD, the UNDP, the European Union—more recently the French government has appointed a committee, chaired by Joseph E. Stiglitz and including four other Nobel Prize winners, to propose new indicators of â€Å"economic perfo rmance and social progress. In the meantime, welfare economics1 has burgeoned in various directions, involving the theory of social choice, the theory of 1 The expression â€Å"welfare economics† is used here in a very broad sense, including all branches of economics that bear on the definition of criteria for the evaluation of social states and public policies. It is not restricted to the narrow confines of Old and New (or New New) Welfare Economics. 1029 1030 Journal of Economic Literature, Vol.XLVII (December 2009) is much less supported by economic theory than is commonly assumed. The extension of this approach to intertemporal welfare as attempted in â€Å"green† accounting adds even more complications. In view of recent developments in the theory of social choice and fairness, it will be argued that the idea of a â€Å"corrected GDP† is still defendable but implies different accounting methods than usually thought. Second, there is the idea of â€Å"Gross National Happiness,† which has been revived by the burgeoning happiness studies.It will be argued here that the happiness revolution might, instead of bringing about the return of â€Å"utility,† ultimately condemn this concept for being simplistic, and reveal that subjective well-being cannot serve as a metric for social evaluation without serious precautions. Third, there is the â€Å"capability approach † proposed by Amartya Sen, primarily as a framework for thinking rather than a precise method of measurement. This approach has now inspired a vvariety of applications, but most of its premoters are reluctant to seek a synthetic index, a famous exception being the Human Development Index (HDI).It will be argued here that a key aspect of this problem is whether individual valuations of the relevant dimensions of capability can and should be taken into account— an issue over which a dialogue with the two previous approaches might prove very useful. Fourth , there is the growing number of â€Å"synthetic indicators† that, following the lead of the HDI, are constructed as weighted averages of summary measures of social performance in various domains.It will be argued here that, if the three other approaches were fully exploited, there would be little reason to keep this fourth approach alive because it is ill-equipped to take account of the distribution of well-being and advantage among the members of society. The paper is structured as follows. Sections 2–4 deal with monetary measures that are linked to the project of a corrected fair allocation, the capability approach, the study of happiness and its determinants, in conjunction with new developments in the philosophy of social justice and the psychology of well-being.These conceptual developments provide new analytical tools that may be directly useful for concrete measurements. About a decade ago, Daniel T. Slesnick (1998) made the following observation: â€Å"While centrally important to many problems of economic analysis, confusion persists concerning the relationship between commonly used welfare indicators and well-established theoretical formulations† (p. 2108). It is probably safe to say that much the same now holds about the relationship between concrete measures of welfare—old, new, and potential—and upto-date theories.It appears timely to ask what the existing academic literature has to say about alternatives to GDP. The practical importance of a measure of social welfare can hardly be overstated. Ppolicy decisions, cost–benefit analyses, international comparisons, measures of growth, and inequality studies constantly refer to evaluations of individual and collective wellbeing. The fact that monetary measures still predominate in all such contexts is usually interpreted as imposed by the lack of a better index rather than reflecting a positive consensus.The purpose of this paper is, in the light of state-of-t he-art welfare economics, to examine the pros and cons of the main alternative approaches to the measurement of social welfare from the perspective of ppolicy evaluation as well as international and intertemporal comparisons. Four approaches are discussed here. First, there is the idea of a â€Å"corrected GDP † that would take account, in particular, of nonmarket aspects of well-being and of sustainability concerns. As will be explained here, a basic problem for this approach is that its starting point, national income, as a candidate for a measure of social welfare,Fleurbaey: Beyond GDP: The Quest for a Measure of Social Welfare GDP. Section 2 revisits the classical results involving the value of total consumption and usually invoked in justification of GDP-like measures. This appears important because some of these results are often exaggerated, while others are little known or even susceptible of developments in future research. Section 3 is devoted to the intertemporal e xtension of this approach, as featured in the Net National Product (NNP) and â€Å"green† accounting.Section 4 turns to measures based on willingness-to-pay and moneymetric utilities, highlighting the connection with recent developments in the theory of social choice and fairness. This section also briefly discusses cost–benefit analysis, which is an important tool for ppolicy evaluation. Sections 5–7 are devoted to the nonmonetary approaches, namely, synthetic indicators such as the HDI (section 5), happiness studies and the various possible indexes of subjective well-being (section 6), and the capability approach (section 7).Section 8 makes concluding remarks about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches analyzed in the paper and the prospects for future developments and applications. 2. Monetary Aggregates Revisited The project of correcting GDP has been often understood, after William D. Nordhaus and James Tobin’s (1973) semina l work, as adding or subtracting terms that have the same structure as GDP, i. e. , monetary aggregates computed as quantities valued at market prices or at imputed prices in case market prices are not available. As we will see in this section, economic theory is much less supportive of this approach than usually 2 Nordhaus and Tobin (1973) set out to compute â€Å"a comprehensive measure of the annual real consumption of households. Consumption is intended to include all goods and services, marketed or not, valued at market prices or at their equivalent in oopportunity costs to consumers† (p. 24). 1031 thought by most users of national accounts. Many official reports swiftly gloss over the fact that economic theory has established total income as a good index of social welfare under some assumptions (which are usually left unspecified).To be sure, there is a venerable tradition of economic theory that seeks to relate social welfare to the value of total income or total consu mption. 3 Most of that theory, however, deals with the limited issue of determining the sign of the welfare change rather than its magnitude, not to mention the level of welfare itself. In this perspective, the widespread use of GDP per capita, corrected or uncorrected, as a cardinal measure allowing ppercentage scaling of differences and variations appears problematic. 4 In this section, I review the old and recent arguments for and against monetary aggregates as social welfare indicators. . 1 A Revealed Preference Argument Start from the revealed preference argument that, assuming local nonsatiation, if a consumer chooses a commodity bundle x (with ? different commodities) in a budget set defined by the price vector p, then x is revealed preferred to all bundles y such that py < px. If x is interior and assuming differentiability, for an infinitesimal change dx, x + dx is strictly preferred to x by the consumer if and only if pdx > 0. Note the importance of the interiority assumpt ion here.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Rational Rose Manual

Visualize with Rational Software Architect Create and transform a UML 2. 0 model into code Skill Level: Introductory Eric Long ([email  protected] ibm. com) Software Engineer IBM 21 Mar 2006 Rational Software Architect virtually teems with visual tools to handle a number of development tasks. Of most interest to developers are UML modeling, design patterns, and UML-to-code transformations. After completing this tutorial, you will know how to create a UML model, apply a design pattern to that model, and, finally, transform the abstract model into actual code. Section 1. Before you startRational ® Software Architect provides developers, architects, and analysts visual tools for a wide variety of software development tasks. This tutorial introduces a few of these powerful visual tools: UML modeling, design patterns, and UML transformations. About this tutorial Learn how to create, edit, and analyze UML models using Rational Software Architect. This tutorial demonstrates the followin g Rational Software Architect capabilities: †¢ UML modeling Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 1 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks Design patterns †¢ UML transformations This tutorial is intended for software developers, architects, and analysts interested in learning about Rational Software Architect's visual modeling capabilities. If you want to learn how to transform high-level UML models into actual code without even knowing a particular programming language, this tutorial is for you. Objectives After completing this tutorial, you will know how to use Rational Software Architect to create UML projects and models, apply design patterns to those models (new or existing), and transform UML models into source code or into a different type of model.Prerequisites This tutorial assumes that you have some knowledge of Javaâ„ ¢ programming, and design patterns. Knowledge of UML m odels is helpful, but not required. System requirements To run the examples in this tutorial, install Rational Software Architect. If you don't have a copy of Rational Software Architect, download a free trial version. All of the prerequisites for Rational Software Architect are located in the Resources section of this tutorial. Section 2. Create a UML modeling project To get started, you need to do some initial set up. First, create a UML project and model. StepsCreating a UML modeling project is very easy: Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 2 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Open Rational Software Architect. Open the Modeling perspective by selecting Open Perspective > Modeling from the Window menu. Make sure all of your open projects are closed. Select New > Project†¦ from the File menu. Ensure the Show All Wizards box is checked. Expand the Modeling folder. Select UML Project. Figure 1. The New Project window 8. 9. Click Next.Name your project DWorksPatternProject. Figure 2. UML Modeling Project window Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 3 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 10. Click Next. 11. Fill in the Create a UML project wizard as follows: †¢ Select UML Modeling for the File types. †¢ Select Blank Model for the Templates. †¢ Enter PatternModel for the File name. †¢ Leave the remaining defaults. The wizard should look like this: Figure 3. Create UML Model window Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006.All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 4 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® 12. Click Finish. 13. The Model Explorer view contains your UML Project, DWorksDesignPattern and your blank UML model, PatternModel. emx. Figure 4. Current Model Explorer view Visualize with Rati onal Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 5 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks See, wasn't that easy? Now, on to the more exciting part of the tutorial. Let's build the model using RSA's user-friendly visual tools. Section 3. Model a design patternNow it's time to select a design pattern, apply that design pattern to a model, observe all relationships of the pattern, and add attributes and operations to the model. Design patterns in RSA Rational Software Architect comes packaged with support for all of the Gang of Four design patterns. You also have the ability to import and create your own design patterns. Select a design pattern 1. 2. Select Show View > Other†¦ from the Window menu. Expand the Modeling folder and select Pattern Explorer. Figure 5. Select Pattern Explorer Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006.All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 6 of 22 ibm. com/devel operWorks developerWorks ® 3. 4. 5. Click OK. In the Pattern Explorer view, expand Design Patterns > Behavioral. Select the Observer pattern. Figure 6. The Observer Design Pattern Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 7 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 6. 7. 8. To learn about the pattern, toggle between the Overview and Short Description tabs at the bottom of the Pattern Explorer view. In the Pattern Explorer view, drag-and-drop Observer onto DesignPattern's blank diagram.The editor should contain an instance of the Observer Design Pattern that looks like this: Figure 7. Observer Pattern Instance Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 8 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® Apply a design pattern 1. In DesignPattern's editor, hover over ConcreteObserver and select Enter argument name/value†¦. Fi gure 8. Enter argument 2. Name the parameter Shopper, then press Enter. The Observer instance now has a concrete observer named Shopper. Let's add a parameter using a different approach.From the Palette (right of diagram), click to expand the Class Diagram section. Figure 9. Palette 3. Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 9 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 4. 5. 6. Select Class and click anywhere in the diagram (do not click on the Observer instance). Name the newly created class Order and press Enter. Drag-and-drop Order onto ConcreteSubject in the Observer instance. Figure 10. Drag-and-drop ConcreteSubject Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006.All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 10 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® 7. Your diagram should look similar to this (you might not see all of the relationships†¦ you'll fix that in the next section). Figure 11. Observer instance Observe the design pattern relationships 1. Right-click on any element in the DesignPattern diagram. Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 11 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 2. Select Filters > Show Related Elements†¦ from the context menu.Figure 12. Show relationships 3. Select Show All Relationships from the Custom Query list. Figure 13. Show/Hide Relationships Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 12 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 13 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 4. 5. Click OK You can see all of the elements and relationships represented in this model: Figure 14. Observer pattern 6.Now you are ready to add some elements to your blank Observer design pattern model. Add methods and attributes to a model Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 14 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® 1. 2. In the PatternModel editor, right-click the Order concrete subject. Select Add UML > attribute. Figure 15. Add attribute 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Type -orderNum : String (the â€Å"-† makes the attribute private). Press Enter. Repeat the same steps on Shopper, but name the attribute -custID : String.In the PatternModel editor, right-click the Shopper concrete subject. Select Add UML > operation. Type +makeOrder() (the â€Å"+† makes the operation public). PatternModel's editor should now look like this: Figure 16. Observer pattern Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 15 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks Good work ! You have completed your model (a very simple model) and can use Rational Software Architect's tools to transform this model into actual code. Section 4. Transform your model into Java codeNow that you have a completed model within your UML project, you are going to transform that model to actual code. Rational Software Architect supports the Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 16 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® following model-to-code transformations out of the box: †¢ UML -> Java †¢ UML -> EJB †¢ UML -> XSD †¢ UML -> CORBA †¢ UML -> C++ However, if you would like more options, there are built-in tools and wizards that let you create custom transformations in Rational Software Architect.You are going to transform your existing model into Java. Transform a UML model to Java code 1. In the Model Explorer view, expand DWorksPatternProject. Figure 17. Expanded pro ject 2. 3. In the Model Explorer view, select both Order and Shopper. Right-click on either of the selected objects and select Transform > Run Transformation > UML – Java. Figure 18. Run transformation Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 17 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 4.In the Run this Transformation window, click Create new Target Container†¦. Figure 19. Transformation window Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 18 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® 5. In the New Java Project window, name the project DWorksTransformedJava. Figure 20. New Java project Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 19 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. com/developerWorks 6. 7. Click Finish.Now that you are back in the Run this Trans formation window, click Run. RSA transforms the model into Java source code. The Model Explorer view should contain this Java project: Figure 21. Transformed Java project 8. Double-click Order. java to see the transformed code. The code should look like this: Figure 22. Transformed Order class Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 20 of 22 ibm. com/developerWorks developerWorks ® Try running a different transformation from UML-to-C++ and explore the results. Section 5. Conclusion Congratulations!In this tutorial, you covered the creation of a UML project and model, selecting and applying a design pattern to a model, adding and editing attributes and operations to a model, and transforming that model into actual code. You did all of this without even writing a line of code! It is easy to see (even with this simple tutorial) how visual UML modeling tools simplify code development. At this point, you might want to explore some of the links in the Resources section of this tutorial. Visualize with Rational Software Architect  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 21 of 22 developerWorks ® ibm. om/developerWorks Resources Learn †¢ Visit the developerWorks Rational zone to expand your Rational skills. †¢ â€Å"Exposing Design flaws in your code: Part 1†³ (developerWorks, August 2005) details the visual tools available to run internal code reviews in Rational Software Architect. †¢ † Visualize with Rational Application Developer† (developerWorks, February 2006) details the visualization capabilities of Rational Application Developer. †¢ â€Å"Discover IBM Rational visual tools for application development† (developerWorks, February 2006) covers all of the different visual tools available in the Rational Software Development Platform. Stay current with developerWorks technical events and webcasts. Get product s and technologies †¢ Download a free trial version of Rational Software Architect. †¢ Build your next development project with IBM trial software, available for download directly from developerWorks. Discuss †¢ Participate in developerWorks blogs and get involved in the developerWorks community. About the author Eric Long Eric Long is a Software Engineer in the IBM Developer Skills Program. Eric graduated from The University of Texas with a degree in Computer Science.He joined IBM in July of 2004 and currently works in Austin, Texas. As a Software Engineer, he provides technical information to developers on open source and industry trends and technologies through speaking engagements, web content, and faculty consultations at IBM Academic Initiative member universities. His work also includes technical courses, demos, articles, and tutorials available at http://www. ibm. com/university and http://www. ibm. com/developerworks. Visualize with Rational Software Architec t  © Copyright IBM Corporation 2006. All rights reserved. Trademarks Page 22 of 22

Thursday, November 7, 2019

What You Need to Know About Prose

What You Need to Know About Prose Prose is ordinary writing (both fiction and nonfiction) as distinguished from verse. Most essays, compositions, reports, articles, research papers, short stories, and journal entries are types of prose writings. In his book The Establishment of Modern English Prose (1998), Ian Robinson observed that the term prose is surprisingly hard to define. . . . We shall return to the sense there may be in the old joke that prose is not verse. In 1906, English philologist Henry Cecil Wyld  suggested that the best prose is never entirely remote in form from the best corresponding conversational style of the period (The Historical Study of the Mother Tongue). Etymology From the Latin, forward turn Observations I wish our clever young poets would remember my homely definitions of prose and poetry: that is, prose words in their best order; poetry the best words in the best order.(Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Table Talk, July 12, 1827) Philosophy Teacher: All that is not prose is verse; and all that is not verse is prose.M. Jourdain: What? When I say: Nicole, bring me my slippers, and give me my night-cap, is that prose?Philosophy Teacher: Yes, sir.M. Jourdain: Good heavens! For more than 40 years I have been speaking prose without knowing it.(Molià ¨re, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, 1671) For me, a page of good prose is where one hears the rain and the noise of battle. It has the power to give grief or universality that lends it a youthful beauty.(John Cheever, on accepting the National Medal for Literature, 1982) Prose is when all the lines except the last go on to the end. Poetry is when some of them fall short of it.(Jeremy Bentham, quoted by M. St. J. Packe in The Life of John Stuart Mill, 1954) You campaign in poetry. You govern in prose.(Governor Mario Cuomo, New Republic, April 8, 1985) Transparency in Prose [O]ne can write nothing readable unless one constantly struggles to efface ones own personality. Good prose is like a window pane.(George Orwell, Why I Write, 1946)Our ideal prose, like our ideal typography, is transparent: if a reader doesnt notice it, if it provides a transparent window to the meaning, then the prose stylist has succeeded. But if your ideal prose is purely transparent, such transparency will be, by definition, hard to describe. You cant hit what you cant see. And what is transparent to you is often opaque to someone else. Such an ideal makes for a difficult pedagogy.(Richard Lanham, Analyzing Prose, 2nd ed. Continuum, 2003) Good Prose Prose is the ordinary form of spoken or written language: it fulfills innumerable functions, and it can attain many different kinds of excellence. A well-argued legal judgment, a lucid scientific paper, a readily grasped set of technical instructions all represent triumphs of prose after their fashion. And quantity tells. Inspired prose may be as rare as great poetrythough I am inclined to doubt even that; but good prose is unquestionably far more common than good poetry. It is something you can come across every day: in a letter, in a newspaper, almost anywhere.(John Gross, Introduction to The New Oxford Book of English Prose. Oxford Univ. Press, 1998) A Method of Prose Study Here is a method of prose study which I myself found the best critical practice I have ever had. A brilliant and courageous teacher whose lessons I enjoyed when I was a sixth-former trained me to study prose and verse critically not by setting down my comments but almost entirely by writing imitations of the style. Mere feeble imitation of the exact arrangement of words was not accepted; I had to produce passages that could be mistaken for the work of the author, that copied all the characteristics of the style but treated of some different subject. In order to do this at all it is necessary to make a very minute study of the style; I still think it was the best teaching I ever had. It has the added merit of giving an improved command of the English language and a greater variation in our own style.(Marjorie Boulton, The Anatomy of Prose. Routledge Kegan Paul, 1954) Pronunciation: PROZ

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Alcohol And Domestic Violence

Alcohol And Domestic Violence Essay Domestic ViolenceFound at the scene of the crime two dead bodies stabbed brutally, and leftto die at their house. This was the story that shocked the country in 1991. This was the start of the O.J. Simpson domestic abuse case that is still goingon today. Unfortunately events like this happen many times over everyday inmany setting all over the United states; however the victims of the other casesdont get nearly as much publicity. Some facts about domestic abuse:An average of nine out of 10 women have to be turned away from shelterson. The reason so few cases get assigned initially is the police usuallydont have enough officers to meet the demandAt the Portland Womens Crisis Line, where calls have doubled since thekillings of Nicole Simpson and Ronald Goldman, they welcome the increasedattention. From July 19,through March 31, 1993 a total of 3,665 domestic violencecases were reviewed in Portland Oregon. Of those, only 281 cases resulted insome action taken against the accused abuser. Some of this is because there isnot enough police, but it is mostly because the abused person is scared. For the last six months of 1993 and the first three months of 1994Portland averaged about 1,000 calls each month or 12,000 calls a year. In January 1992, 30 criminal domestic violence complaints were issued. For January 1994, the number was more than 100. Nationally, estimates range from 2 to 4 million women assaults each year. Some studies show that 20 to 30 percent of all women who seek help athospital emergency rooms are there because of domestic violence. Kyra Woods never made it to the emergency room. Whoever killed her saw tothat. She suffered 13 stab wounds to the back five of them so violent the knifecame out the other side of her body. Woods mother, Mable, and two aunts wept quietly in a back row of thecourtroom as the prosecution argued against bail for Woods former boyfriendJackson. Rod Underhill, the prosecutor, painted a picture of domestic violence. He told of a dramatic moment after the killing, when Woods 4-year-old son,holding a teddy bear, re- enacted the attack. He put his hands around the neckof the bear and shook it, Underhill said. He began to pound it with a closedfist and slug it.Mable Woods said that her daughter never told her much about any abuse. Neighbors, however, told police of hearing the couple fight violently. Accordingto police reports, one neighbor said, They fought so hard the pictures on thewall shook back and forth.Jackson has pleaded innocent. His attorney, Angel Lopez, points out that nomurder weapon has been found. He said the account from the 4-year-old boy couldnot be matched with any others, and he pointed out inconsistencies in the boysstatements. Bail was denied. Jackson was accused of killing his former girlfriend, Kyra Woods, bystabbing her 13 times. His bail hearing normally would have merited littlepublic attention. What brought out the cameras and reporter was the Simpson case. Children are often the unseen victims of domestic abuse. they see oneof their parents being harmed and this leads to high stress. Boys tend to bemuch more hostile when raised in a broken home. They are also ten times morelikely to be abusive when they grow up. Girls raised in an abusive family tendto be very shy and afraid of boys. When they grow up they are 50 times morelikely to marry an abusive husband. READ: Gregorik Andras EssayThe effect of domestic abuse on society is negative, but unfortunatelyit does not get much publicity unless it involves a figure that is well knownsuch as O.J. Simpson. Another sad thing is that people often shrug off domesticabuse calling it a personal matter because they dont want to get involved orthey are afraid of what people will think about themSurvivors have found the emotional strength to break from their abusersthrough different means: a hot-line number remembered from a restroom wall, awallet card of crisis numbers from a pediatrician who would not overlook amothers black eye. A grown child begging her mother to fleeand a shelter withan open bed. The women, some with their identities changed to protect their privacy,talked about shame, guilt, fear of triggering even greater violence, low self-worth, isolation, embarrassment, numbing depression, concern for children,foiled escapes, a unrealistic sense of reality, a walking-on-eggshells existenceand, perhaps above all, an illogical hope that something would change. the abuser can make everything sound so good, says Florence A. Reid, 45,now living in transitional housing through Bradley- Angle House after 10 yearsin a violent marriage and another 13 year relationship, in an abusiverelationship both with men who were full of promises after the pummelings. Even now, 25 years later, after dozens of broken ribs, a broken jaw, pushesdownstairs, and out a car, and thrice-weekly bouts with her husband sometimesdrunk, sometimes soberkicking with his work boots as she lay on the floor;even now, Reid has pipe dreams of living happily with this teen-age love, ofsitting on a front porch and talking about the old days. Wouldnt that be nice? asks Reid. Just live a normal life with thefather of my children.The first time I tried leaving my husband was 1972. I took the kids to afriends house, she remembers. He found me and brought a gun with him. Ofcourse, I just went back.In 1992, after dozens of tries, Ruth left for the last time, with the helpof a daughter, and ended up at West Womens Childrens Shelter. Ruth, who now works part-time at a bank, sighs. I dont know. For years,my excuse was the kids. And of course, I realize that was probably the worstthing I did for them. And I always thought, Things will get better if I dothis.'Other women clung to similar fantasies, sure the goodness and charm wouldreturnif they could love him better, do everything right. When someone abusesanother person they often have a certain attitude such as thinking that it isthe abused persons fault and that they brought it upon themselves. extensivestudies have shown this. The abuser often blames the person who was abused fortheir troubles. Abusers often have a hard time communicating. Unfortunately theabuser is rarely gets action taken against them.But when they do it is oftenvery serious. The least that could happen is that the abuser gets a restrainingorder. In more serious cases there can be a number of penalties ranging fromshort prison term to a life sentence. This is the information that I found whenI looked up domestic abuse. As you can see some of these facts are rather grimbut people are becoming more open to ideas and people are reporting more thanever. I hope that this stops being the most un reported crime in the UnitedStates so that we can get the problem under control. BibliographyBreiner, S., Slaughter of the Innocents (1990);deMause, L., The History of Childhood (1988);Kempe, H., and Helfer, R., The Battered Child, 4th ed. (1987);Kempe, Ruth S. and C. Henry, Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescents(1984);Moorehead, C., ed., Betrayal (1990); Wexler, R., Wounded Innocents(1990). READ: Chicano Migration EssayDomestic Abuse Metro Nashville Police Department Evaluation of theSurviving Together Support Group for Women and Children (Womens Group)For Health and Community Services July 1995 By Christine SziklaEASTWOOD, S. Parenting After The Violence in Parent Help Program: News Information Number 8, November 1992, The Australian Council for EducationalResearch Limited, Hawthorn: Victoria. (p.4)WARD, J. How to Research Community Issues: The Grounded CommunityDevelopment Research Method. Partnership Press in Association withDeakin University, Melbourne: 1993. Social Issues

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Evidence of Wage Discrimination Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evidence of Wage Discrimination - Essay Example Classical economists, such as Lewis 1954, widened the aspect of wage to state that, wage determines the overall level of employment. 2. What will happen to the differential between wages of men and women of equal qualifications if multinational companies keep moving to South Korea and the process of "gender arbitrage" described in the article continues? Why? Sexism affects productivity adversely. Economists have established that gender arbitrage in fields of economic advancement reduces the pace of development. South Korea is very advanced technologically, however, its economy is not level with Japan’s economy. An insight into OECD policies reveals that Japan and South Korea possess equal factors of production and economic growth capacities. Even so, South Korea still lags behind. According to Solidarity (2012), records indicate that a woman in South Korea earns 27% less than what a man in the same position would earn. Women make up less than 1 % of the managerial positions. This a very small percentage compared with the fact that, women in the UK and America account for 10% of executive positions. Modern economics recognizes the potential women possess and, the implications of wage discrimination. South Korea’s economic stagnation according to IMF statistics is evidence enough that human capital goes to waste. Wage discrimination in South Korea is deeply rooted in the cultural beliefs and practices. In the Korean culture, the woman’s role focuses on running domestic chores. Globalization has led the belief that relegation of women is an outdated practice. It is important to note that, outdated cultural practices form the basis for lack of economic growth. Statistics indicate that only 60% of female graduates from South Korea between the ages of 24-65 years have employment. Therefore, the labor market in South Korea has a surplus. Firms hire men even though some women might have better qualifications than the men they hire.